Hypo-volemia

Volume expansion of albumin, gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, saline and erythrocytes after haemorrhage in the rat.

Persson J, Grande PO.
Intensive Care Med. 2004 Dec 18

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University and University Hospital of Lund, 221 84, Lund, Sweden.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the colloids 5% albumin, 4% gelatin and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 with each other and with saline, regarding their plasma-expanding effects after haemorrhage; these were also compared with the intravascular volume-expanding effect of re-transfusion with erythrocytes.DESIGN: Controlled, prospective, randomised laboratory study.SETTING: University research laboratory.SUBJECTS: Thirty-five adult rats.INTERVENTIONS: Plasma volume was determined (I(125) albumin tracer technique) after haemorrhage of 20 ml/kg and 3 h after a bolus infusion of 20 ml/kg of each of the colloids or 80 ml/kg of saline, or 6.7 ml/kg of erythrocytes diluted in 9 ml/kg of saline. Blood pressure, haematocrit (Hct), blood gases and physiological parameters were measured.MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Plasma volume after haemorrhage was 29.6+/-2.6 ml/kg (n=35). With the bolus infusion, plasma volume increased by 21.1+/-3.6 ml/kg in the albumin group (n=7), by 13.1+/-2.9 ml/kg in the gelatin group (n=7), by 13.8+/-2.2 ml/kg in the HES group (n=7), by 16.0+/-2.4 ml/kg in the saline group (n=7) and by 6.9+/-2.3 ml/kg in the erythrocyte group (n=7) 3 h after the infusion. In the latter group, there was a total increase in intravascular volume of 13.6+/-2.5 ml/kg including the erythrocyte volume. Arterial pressure was better preserved in the albumin and erythrocyte groups than in the other groups.CONCLUSION: Albumin 5% was a more effective plasma volume expander than gelatin and HES. Saline, with a four times larger volume, and erythrocytes in about 1/3 of the volume had a similar volume-expanding effect to gelatin and HES.