Hypo-volemia

Pulmonary edema during volume infusion.

Stein L, Beraud JJ, Morissette M, Luz PD, Weil MH, Shubin H.

Circulation 1975 Sep;52(3):483-9

The relationship between left ventricular filling pressure and plasma colloid osmotic pressure to pulmonary edema was examined in a group of 37 patients, the majority of whom were hypovolemic. Sixteen patients developed pulmonary edema during fluid infusion. In the 21 patients who did not develop pulmonary edema, the left ventricular filling pressure was slightly elevated but the colloid osmotic pressure was not reduced. The majority of these patients were treated with colloid solutions (group I). In five of the 16 patients who developed pulmonary edema, the left ventricular filling pressure was elevated and there was no reduction in the plasma colloid osmotic pressure. These patients received only colloids (group II). In the other 11 patients who developed pulmonary edema, the left ventricular filling pressure was normal but the plasma colloid osmotic pressure was reduced to 16 +/- 2 torr (group III). The colloid osmotic pressure in this group was significantly less than in the other two groups (P less than 0.01). Most of these patients received large volumes of crystalloid solutions. After administration of furosemide, clearing of pulmonary edema in this group was associated with normalization of the plasma colloid osmotic pressure. Infusion of large volumes of crystalloids in hypovolemic patients can be hazardous, for reduction of the plasma colloid osmotic pressure may predispose to the development of pulmonary edema even when the left ventricular filling pressure remains normal.